Test Yourself

Select the true statements from the following:


neuroectoderm, mesoderm and neural crest cells are involved in the development of the eye (Y)

glaucoma is often accompanied by an increased intraocular pressure (Y)

eyeball contains three chambers: anterior, middle and posterior (N)

white cornea is poorly transparent portion of the fibrous tunic (N)


contraction of iris sphincter muscle makes mydriasis (N)

width of the pupil is under the influence of sympathetic and parasympathetic inervation (Y)

pigment epithelium is a synonym for the rods and cones (N)

color vision in humans is tetrachromatic (N)


beam runs through these structures  in the eye: cornea , anterior chamber, lens , vitreous humour and retina (Y)

image coming on the retina is inverted and magnified (N)

eye center is located in the occipital region (Y)

cones allow color vision (Y)


photosensitive pigment rhodopsin contains a derivative of vitamin E (N)

rhodopsin molecule directly cooperates with G-protein (Y)

concentration of cGMP in the rods affects visual perception (Y)

proteins called crystallins are located in lens (Y)


auditory cells perceive the longitudinal vibration of molecules in the space (Y)

wavelength of a sound wave corresponds to the pitch (Y)

deep tones have low frequency and low wavelength (N)

human ear can perceive sounds in frequency range of 15-16 000 Hz (Y)


six-year child has worse perception of high tones than adults (N )

our auditory system is most sensitive to sounds with frequency of 2000-4000 Hz (Y)

sound pressure level Lp is measured in decibels (Y)

outer ear is the key structure for the bone conduction of sound (N)


middle ear contains the system of auditory ossicles: malleus, incus and stapes (Y)

cochlea contains endolymph and perilymph (Y)

contact of stereocilia of the hair cells with tectorial membrane is crucial for auditory perception (Y)

auditory pathway runs through the medial geniculate corpus to the superior temporal gyrus (Y)


vestibular system consists utricle, saccule, and three semicircular canals (Y)

utricle and saccule register angular acceleration (N)

vestibular pathway communicates with the spinal cord, cerebellum and thalamus (Y)

nystagmus does not occur in healthy humans (N)


G-protein coupled receptors play an important role in the olfactory perception (Y)

most women suffer from hyposmia (N)

smell significantly affects function of the limbic system (Y)

for the perception of smell are significant septal nuclei and pyriform cortex (Y)


human taste buds register five main tastes: salty, sweet, bitter, sour and umami (taste of glutamate) (Y)

taste threshold for bitter substances is usually higher than the threshold for sucrose (N)

receptors coupled with G-protein apply in the gustatory perception (Y)

perception of sour and bitter substances have a similar mechanism (similar receptors and post-receptor pathways) (N)


sour taste perception is carried out by a facilitated diffusion of H+ through ENaC channels (N)

irresistible craving for salt is a typical finding in patients with Addison’s disease (Y)

signals from taste buds are transmitted to the CNS by facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve or vagus nerve (Y)

taste perception is located precentral gyrus (N)