Test Yourself

Choose correct statements:


renal corpuscle consists of glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule (Y)

outer (parietal) layer of the Bowman’s capsule continues as the proximal convoluted tubule (Y)

mesangial cells fill space between glomerular capillaries (Y)

parietal layer of the Bowman’s capsule is formed by podocytes (N)


renal filtration membrane is formed by endothelium of capillaries, mesangial cells and podocytes (N)

proximal tubule is formed by stratified squamous epithelium (N)

distal tubule epithelium is higher than the epithelium of proximal tubule (N)

urinary tract is lined by transitional epithelium (Y)


renal medulla has a lower blood flow than renal cortex (Y)

renal portal system consist of glomeruli and peritubular capillaries (Y)

diameter of vas efferens is higher than diameter of vas afferens (N)

proteoglycans in glomerular filtration membrane have positive charge (N)


nephrin is an important lipid component of the slit diaphragm (N)

juxtamedullary nephrons are found in outer layers of renal cortex (N)

for efficient formation of highly concentrated urine is essential to have hypertonic renal medulla with an osmotic gradient increasing to the depth of the medulla (Y)

thin descending limb of the Henle’s loop allows transport of water molecules (Y)


healthy adult person produces 1.5-2 liters of urine per day (Y)

juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of mesangial cells, granular cells and podocytes (N)

urine is produced by three basic mechanisms: glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion (Y)

physiologic glomerular filtration is approximately 0.5 ml/s (Y)


noradrenaline and angiotensin II increases glomerular filtration rate (N)

apical membrane of the renal tubule cells contains symporters and antiporters (Y)

in the proximal tubule, there is an active absorption of glucose, amino acids, LDL and HDL particles (N)

in resorption of bicarbonate in the proximal tubule plays a major role: enzyme carbonic anhydrase and Na+/H+ antiport (Y)


when exceeding the renal threshold for glucose anuria develops (N)

symporter of Na+, K+ and Cl- ions is localized in the descending limb of the Henle’s loop (N)

reabsorption in the collecting duct is independent of hormone levels (N)

oliguria is defined as a urine production lower than 0.1 l/day (N)


kidneys form around 30 % of erythropoietin in the body (N)

male sex hormones increase production of erythropoietin (Y)

renal cortex cells gain energy for aerobic oxidation of carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids (Y)

kidneys are the main organ of urea production (N)


amount of water in adult male body is about 75 % (N)

cerebrospinal fluid belongs to intracellular fluid (N)

majority of blood plasma osmolarity is determined by plasma proteins (N)

proximal tubule is the main site of vasopressin action (N)


concentration of sodium cations in plasma is 135-145 mmol/l (Y)

natriuretic hormones increase the loss of sodium in the urine (Y)

insufficient production of aldosterone may result in hyponatremia (A)

administration of insulin increases plasma levels of K+ (N)


levels of potassium in plasma decreases during alkalosis(Y)

most of calcium is stored in the intracellular fluid (N)

calcitriol increases resorption of calcium and phosphate in the small intestine (Y)

patients with chronic renal failure develop hyperphosphatemia quite often (A)


physiological pH of arterial blood is 7.36-7.44 (Y)

in the body there are salts of these strong acids: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and carbonic acid (N)

anaerobic oxidation of glucose produces compounds that increase pH (N)

the most important buffer of plasma is hemoglobin (N)


insufficient lung function leads to an increase in pH (N)

kidney cells are able to secrete both H+ and bicarbonate ions (Y)

bicarbonate ions are absorbed in cells of the proximal tubule (Y)

liver synthesizes during alkalosis an increased amount of glutamine (N)


value of the anion gap grows during some poisonings (Y)

metabolic acidosis affects people with chronic kidney disease (Y)

physiological partial pressure of oxygen is 8.0-10.0 kPa (N)

respiratory ABB disorders may be treated by an artificial ventilation (Y)